· VOWEL RULE 1: Short Vowels: (lesson 2) A vowel followed by a consonant is short. Code it with a breve.
· VOWEL RULE 2: Long Vowels:(lesson 3) An open, accented vowel (not followed by a consonant) is long. Code it with a macron and an accent.
· VOWEL RULE 3: (lesson 41) A vowel followed by a consonant and a silent e is long; code the vowel with a macron, and cross out the silent e.
· Vowel Rule 4 (Schwa):(lesson 84) Open, unaccented vowels usually have the following sounds: a is schwa; e, o, and u are long; and i is short. Any vowel can have the /u/ sound. Coded with an upside down e. (schwa)
· K and C Spelling Rules:(lesson 23)
· k before e, i, or y
· c before a, o, u, and any consonant
· Final /k/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 29)
· ck after a short vowel
· k after a consonant or a vowel digraph
· ke after a long vowel
· c at the end of a word with two or more syllables
· Floss Rule: (lesson 52) When a one-syllable root word has a short vowel sound followed by the sound /f/, /l/, /s/, it is usually spelled ff, ll,ss, zz.
· Final /v/ Spelling Rule: (lesson 53) When a word has the final sound /v/, it is spelled ve.
· Final /s/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 78)
· ss after a short vowel
· ce after a long vowel
· se after anything else
· Adding a Consonant Suffix: (lesson 88) To spell a word with a consonant suffix, just add the suffix to the end of the root word.
· Adding a Vowel Suffix-Dropping Rule: (lesson 88) When a word ends with a silent e, drop the e before adding a vowel suffix.
· Adding a Vowel Suffix-Doubling Rule: (lesson 88) When the final syllable of a word is accented and ends with one vowel and one consonant, double the final consonant before adding a vowel suffix.
· J & G Spelling Rule: (lesson 109)
· j before a, o, or u
· g before e, i, or y
· Final /ch/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 116)
· tch after a short vowel
· ch after anything else
· Final /j/ Spelling Rule: (lesson 117)
· dge after a short vowel
· ge after anything else
· How to Divide and Label a Word: (lesson 36) vc/cv
· Syllable Division Rule vccv (lesson 39) vc'/cv; vc/cv'
· Syllable Division Rule vcv (lesson 81) v'/cv; vc'/v; v/cv'
· Syllable Division Rule vc/cvc/cv (lesson 92)
· Syllable Division Rules vcccv (lesson 99) vc/ccv; vcc/cv
Definitions for Coding and Understanding Saxon Phonics:
· Breve- a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's short sound
· Cedilla- a coding mark on the letter c to indicate a soft sound
· Code: to mark a word with symbols to provide information about how to pronounce it
· Combination- two letters that come together to make an unexpected sound(ar, er, ir, or, ur, qu, wh); coded with an arc
· Digraph- two letters that come together to make one new sound (consonant digraphs: ch, ck, ng, ph, sh, th; vowel digraphs: ai, au, aw, ay, ea, ee, ei, ew, ey, ie, oa, oo, ow, ue); underline to code
· Diphthong- two vowel sounds that come together so quickly that they are considered one syllable (oi, ou, ow, oy); code with an arc
· Final, stable syllable: a nonphonetic syllable that occurs in the final position frequently enough to be considered stable (ble, cle, dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, sle, tle, zle, tion); code with a bracket
· Ghost Letter Digraphs: two letters that make one sound; first sound is silent (gn, kn, wr); silent letters are coded with a diagonal slash
· High-frequency words: those words that occur most often in written text
· K-back: a coding mark consisting of a vertical line on the back of a c that makes the /k/ sound
· Macron: a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's long sound; line drawn above a vowel saying its long name
· Prefix: a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a root word that changes the meaning or usage of the word (dis, pre, un)
· Root word: a word with no prefix or suffix added
· Schwa: a coding mark resembling an upside-down e placed over a vowel to indicate the short u sound
· Sight word: a word of which all or part does not follow phonetic rules
· Sneaky e: the e in the vowel rule v-e; it makes the vowel have a long sound (a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e); coded by drawing a diagonal slash through the silent e and a macron drawn above the long vowel
· Suffix: a letter or group of letters added to the end of a root word that changes the meaning or usage of the word (vowel suffix:ed, er, es, est, ing, y; consonant suffix:ful, less, ly, ness, s); suffixes are coded by boxing in the affix added to the root word
· Syllable: a word or part of a word that contains only one vowel sound and is made by one impulse of the voice; syllables are split with a vertical line
· Trigraph: three letters that come together to make one sound (dge, igh, tch); underline trigraphs to code
· Twin consonsants: two identical consonants making only one sound; coded with a diagonal slash for silent letters
· Voice line: a coding mark consisting of a horizontal line through the middle of a letter or letters, representing a voiced sound (s, th)
· "Wild Colt" Words: words that only have one vowel and break the rule by sounding like a long vowel
Other Rules or Codes:
· ai is often followed by n, l, or d
· oa is often found in one-syllable words
· v and x are never doubled
· x is never followed by an s
· no words in English end in v
· igh, ough, and augh are usually followed by a t
add es to nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, tch, and sh to make them plural