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Saxon Phonics 101:


SAXON Vowel Coding Rules:

·       VOWEL RULE 1: Short Vowels: (lesson 2) A vowel followed by a consonant is short. Code it with a breve.

·       VOWEL RULE 2: Long Vowels:(lesson 3) An open, accented vowel (not followed by a consonant) is long. Code it with a macron and an accent.

·       VOWEL RULE 3: (lesson 41) A vowel followed by a consonant and a silent e is long; code the vowel with a macron, and cross out the silent e.

·       Vowel Rule 4 (Schwa):(lesson 84) Open, unaccented vowels usually have the following sounds: a is schwa; e, o, and u are long; and i is short. Any vowel can have the /u/ sound.  Coded with an upside down e. (schwa)


Spelling Rules

·       K and C Spelling Rules:(lesson 23)

·       k before e, i, or y

·       c before a, o, u, and any consonant

·       Final /k/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 29)

·       ck after a short vowel

·       k after a consonant or a vowel digraph

·       ke after a long vowel

·       c at the end of a word with two or more syllables

·       Floss Rule: (lesson 52) When a one-syllable root word has a short vowel sound followed by the sound /f/, /l/, /s/, it is usually spelled ff, ll,ss, zz.

·       Final /v/ Spelling Rule: (lesson 53) When a word has the final sound /v/, it is spelled ve.

·       Final /s/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 78)

·       ss after a short vowel

·       ce after a long vowel

·       se after anything else

·       Adding a Consonant Suffix: (lesson 88) To spell a word with a consonant suffix, just add the suffix to the end of the root word.

·       Adding a Vowel Suffix-Dropping Rule: (lesson 88) When a word ends with a silent e, drop the e before adding a vowel suffix.

·       Adding a Vowel Suffix-Doubling Rule: (lesson 88) When the final syllable of a word is accented and ends with one vowel and one consonant, double the final consonant before adding a vowel suffix.

·       J & G Spelling Rule: (lesson 109)

·       j before a, o, or u

·       g before e, i, or y

·       Final /ch/ Spelling Rules: (lesson 116)

·       tch after a short vowel

·       ch after anything else

·       Final /j/ Spelling Rule: (lesson 117)

·       dge after a short vowel

·       ge after anything else


Syllable Division

·       How to Divide and Label a Word: (lesson 36) vc/cv

·       Syllable Division Rule vccv (lesson 39) vc'/cv; vc/cv'

·       Syllable Division Rule vcv (lesson 81) v'/cv; vc'/v; v/cv'

·       Syllable Division Rule vc/cvc/cv (lesson 92)

·       Syllable Division Rules vcccv (lesson 99) vc/ccv; vcc/cv


Definitions for Coding and Understanding Saxon Phonics:

·       Breve- a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's short sound

·       Cedilla- a coding mark on the letter c to indicate a soft sound

·       Code: to mark a word with symbols to provide information about how to pronounce it

·       Combination- two letters that come together to make an unexpected sound(ar, er, ir, or, ur, qu, wh); coded with an arc

·       Digraph- two letters that come together to make one new sound (consonant digraphs: ch, ck, ng, ph, sh, th; vowel digraphs: ai, au, aw, ay, ea, ee, ei, ew, ey, ie, oa, oo, ow, ue); underline to code

·       Diphthong- two vowel sounds that come together so quickly that they are considered one syllable (oi, ou, ow, oy); code with an arc

·       Final, stable syllable: a nonphonetic syllable that occurs in the final position frequently enough to be considered stable (ble, cle, dle, fle, gle, kle, ple, sle, tle, zle, tion); code with a bracket

·       Ghost Letter Digraphs:  two letters that make one sound; first sound is silent (gn, kn, wr); silent letters are coded with a diagonal slash

·       High-frequency words: those words that occur most often in written text

·       K-back: a coding mark consisting of a vertical line on the back of a c that makes the /k/ sound

·       Macron: a coding mark used to indicate a vowel's long sound; line drawn above a vowel saying its long name

·       Prefix: a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a root word that changes the meaning or usage of the word (dis, pre, un)

·       Root word: a word with no prefix or suffix added

·       Schwa: a coding mark resembling an upside-down e placed over a vowel to indicate the short u sound

·       Sight word: a word of which all or part does not follow phonetic rules

·       Sneaky e: the e in the vowel rule v-e; it makes the vowel have a long sound (a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e); coded by drawing a diagonal slash through the silent e and a macron drawn above the long vowel

·       Suffix: a letter or group of letters added to the end of a root word that changes the meaning or usage of the word (vowel suffix:ed, er, es, est, ing, y; consonant suffix:ful, less, ly, ness, s); suffixes are coded by boxing in the affix added to the root word

·       Syllable: a word or part of a word that contains only one vowel sound and is made by one impulse of the voice; syllables are split with a vertical line

·       Trigraph: three letters that come together to make one sound (dge, igh, tch); underline trigraphs to code

·       Twin consonsants: two identical consonants making only one sound; coded with a diagonal slash for silent letters

·       Voice line: a coding mark consisting of a horizontal line through the middle of a letter or letters, representing a voiced sound (s, th)

·       "Wild Colt" Words: words that only have one vowel and break the rule by sounding like a long vowel


Other Rules or Codes:

·       ai is often followed by n, l, or d

·       oa is often found in one-syllable words

·       v and x are never doubled

·       x is never followed by an s

·       no words in English end in v

·       igh, ough, and augh are usually followed by a t

add es to nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, tch, and sh to make them plural