Animals, Animals
S1L1b
Identifies the basic needs of an animal. 1. Air, 2. Water, 3. Food, 4. Shelter
S1L1d Compare and describes various animals - appearance, growth, motion, basic needs.

American Toad Bullfrog Mudpuppy Spotted Salamander
 
Hummingbird Penguin Blue Jay Mallard Duck
 
Bee Ladybug Dragonfly Ant
 
Brown Bear Tiger Elephant Red Fox
 
Turtle Snake Alligator Komodo Dragon

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American Toad
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An American Toad has brown or olive warty skin. It has two poison glands behind their eyes. American Toads have four short leg and two big eyes. They are about 4 inches long and are chubby. American Toad babies are called tadpoles. They live in wet places where there are lots of insects. They catch insects with their long, sticky tongue. They hunt at night and spend the day in a shady spot. They are found all over the world. Predators of American Toads include snakes, owls, skunks and raccoons.
 
Bullfrog
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A bullfrog has green skin with brown spots. It does not have bumps on it's back. It lives near water and is the largest frog in the frog family. Bullfrog babies are called tadpoles. A bullfrog can weigh up to one pound and can be as long as 6 inches (that's half of a ruler!). Bullfrogs live in lakes, rivers and large ponds. They hunt at night for insects, mice, fish, birds and snakes. Bullfrogs have many predators, including snakes, turtles, fish, birds, herons and raccoons.
 
Mudpuppy
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The Mudpuppy is a type of salamander. It has spotted brown skin with feathery red gills. A mudpuppy has four toes on each foot and a tail that has a fin. It can be up to 11 inches long and weigh around 4 ounces. It lives in lakes and rivers. A mudpuppy is very slimy! Mudpuppies eat worms, small fish and other small amphibians. Another name for the mudpuppy is a waterdog. Fish, crayfish, turtles and water snakes are predators of the mudpuppy.
 
Spotted Salamander
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A Spotted Salamander is black or brown with bright yellow spots. It's belly is light gray. It has four legs and a long tail. Spotted Salamanders grow to be about 6 inches long and weigh about 5 ounces. They live in forests and live underground in the summer to keep cool. Spotted Salamanders like to eat earthworms, insects and spiders. Some of the spotted salamander's predators include turtles, fish, frogs, birds and crayfish. Spotted salamander babies are called nymphs.

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birds
Hummingbird
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Hummingbirds can be many colors. They live in nests all over North and South America. They are the smallest birds in the world. Hummingbirds are only 3 to 5 inches long and weigh about 3 grams. Their wings flap so fast that they make a buzzing sound. Hummingbirds can fly up to 60 miles per hour and are the only birds that can fly backwards! They like to eat nectar and insects. Hummingbirds fly so much that they have very weak feet. It is easier for a hummingbird to fly than to walk. Hummingbirds are so fast that they don't have many predators (because they are hard to catch!). Some of their predators include larger birds and praying mantis.
 
Penguin
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Penguins are black and white birds. There are many different kinds of penguins. The average penguin is around 2 feet tall and weighs up to 10 pounds. The emperor penguin is the largest of all the penguins, weighing up to 48 pounds and standing up to 4 feet tall. They live in very cold places usually with ice and snow. Penguins cannot fly, but are very good swimmers and divers. They waddle when they walk and can slide on their bellies. They live in groups. The males take care of the chicks (baby penguins) and the females go look for food. Penguins eat seafood (mainly fish). The end of their bill has a hook on it to help them catch food. Leopard seals, sea lions and orcas prey on penguins.
 
Blue Jay
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Blue Jays live in forests across America. They are different shades of blue and have white chests. They are very smart birds. They have loud calls, and can copy calls of other birds. Blue Jays eat acorns, nuts, seeds and small insects. They live in nests. They grow to be 10 to 12 inches long and weigh about 4 ounces. Predators of blue jays include hawks and owls. Their babies do not have a special name. They are called blue jays. Blue Jays do not like to share. They will chase other birds away from food, and they will carry food off and hide it.
 
Mallard Duck
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Mallard Ducks have gray, brown, white and green feathers. They have green feathers on their heads and yellow bills. Mallard ducks weigh between 1 and 2 pounds and can be 20 inches long. They live in marshes, fields, lakes and ponds. Mallards can fly and swim. They eat insects, plants, grains, tadpoles, weeds, roots, snails and small fish. They move by walking, swimming and flying. They make nests in bushes. Their babies are called ducklings. Foxes, raccoons, snapping turtles and large fish will take ducklings.
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insects
Bee
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Bees can be black, yellow or brown with white, yellow or orange stripes. They are covered in hair and have a pair of wings. Bees eat nectar and pollen from plants. Bees make honey and beeswax. They make nests in trees or dead wood. They can also live in hives. Bees make a buzzing sound when they fly and have stingers on the end of their bodies. Bees won't sting you if you leave them alone. Birds and dragonflies like to eat bees. Bees grow to be about an inch and a half long (as long as a large paper clip). Bees see all colors except the color red.
 
Ladybug
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Ladybugs' wings can be yellow, orange or red with small black spots. They are half an inch long and weigh about .02 grams. Ladybugs weigh about the same as a small metal paperclip. They live in gardens, forests and grassy areas full of weeds. Their small bodies are made up of three parts. Baby ladybugs are called larva. Ladybugs eat small insects like fruit flies. Ladybugs like to live in warm places. Ladybugs do not taste good to their predators. They have poison in their knees! They are harmless to humans and only live for 1 year. Birds, insects and humans are predators of the ladybug.
 
Dragonfly
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A dragonfly can be many pretty colors, like red, yellow, brown and blue. They have two pairs of thin wings and their eyes are close together. Dragonflies have very good vision! They are very fast fliers and can turn around quickly in the air. Dragonflies live near rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. They eat small insects like mosquitoes and gnats. Did you know they can eat while flying? Birds, lizards, frogs and spiders are some of the predators of the dragonfly. Dragonfly babies are called nymphs.
 
Ant
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Ants can be brown, black or red. They live in colonies all over the world (except Antarctica). They have a hard outer body and three body parts. They have six legs and two antennae. Ants use their antennae to touch, feel, taste, smell and talk to each other. Ants are hard workers. Each ant has a job to do. Bears, anteaters, some birds and armadillos are predators of ants. Ants weigh about .01 pounds but can carry 10 to 50 times their body weight! Ants are very strong.
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mammals

Brown Bear
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Brown Bears can be brown or black. They are large animals with four legs, sharp claws and are covered in fur. Brown bears can weigh between 500 and 1000 pounds and can be between 5 and 10 feet tall! They live in forests, open fields, and mountains. Brown bears are good diggers. They dig large, cozy dens for their winter homes. They spend 4 to 6 months a year sleeping in their den. Brown bears eat plants and animals. A grizzly bear is the smallest bear in the brown bear family. Baby bears are called cubs. Brown bears don't have many predators because they are so big and fierce. Humans are predators of brown bears.
 
Tiger
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Tigers are orange and white with black stripes. A tiger's paws are large and strong to bring down their prey. They have five toes with claws on each paw. They have small ears and whiskers. Tigers can weigh around 700 pounds and grow up to 6 feet long. Tigers live in forests and swamps. They are large animals, but can move quickly and quietly. They have large teeth and strong jaws to eat other animals. Tigers live for about 25 years. Baby tigers are called cubs.
 
Elephant
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Elephants are large and gray and have big ears and long trunks. They can weigh up to 6 tons and be as tall as 12 feet. Because of their size, adult elephants have no enemies other than humans. Elephants flap their large ears to cool themselves off. Elephants have two long tusks that are used to lift things, to dig for water and for protection. They live in Africa and Asia at the edge of rain forests. Elephants live in groups called herds. Baby elephants are called calves. Elephants eat grass, fruit, leaves and bark. They drink lots of water too! One elephant can eat up to 300 pounds of food a day! Elephants can live as long as 50 years.
 
Red Fox
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Red foxes are a brown, red color on their backs and white on their bellies. They have small bodies and are fast runners. Red foxes can weigh between 6 and 24 pounds and can be around 2 feet long. The red fox is covered in thick fur and has a long bushy tail. They hunt at night and live in forests. Red foxes eat rodents, birds, insects and fruit. They sleep in dens and their babies are called kits or pups. Coyotes, wolves, bears, eagles, lions and humans prey on the red fox.
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reptiles

Turtle
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Turtles can be brown, gray or green with tan or yellow marks. They have four legs with webbed toes and a tail. Turtles are cold-blooded. They live all over the world, except in Antarctica (it's too cold). Turtles eat plants. A turtle spends most of its time in water. Turtles have a hard shell that protects them like a shield. They can hide their heads inside their shells when they are afraid. Hawks, sharks and snakes are all enemies of the turtle. If you touch a turtle's shell, they can feel it. Baby turtles are called hatchlings and hatch from eggs. Turtles walk very slowly. There are so many different kinds of turtles around the world. Turtles can grow between 6 inches and 6 feet long, and weigh between half a pound and 175 pounds!
 
Rattlesnake
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Rattlesnakes have brown, black, gray and yellow scales. They live in wooded areas and grow to be between 3 and 4 feet long. They can weigh up to 10 pounds! Rattlesnakes are meat eaters. They like to eat rats, mice, squirrels and birds. Rattlesnakes have no feet. They move side to side to slither on the ground. Rattlesnakes have a rattle on the end of their tail. They shake their rattles to warn their enemies. Rattlesnakes have venom in their fangs. The King Snake, roadrunner, wild pigs, hawks and eagles are all predators of the rattlesnake. Baby rattlesnakes are called snakelets and are 10 inches long when born.
 
Alligator
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Alligators have gray and black scales. They are cold-blooded and live in warm places like Florida and Louisiana. They can grow to be 13 feet long and weigh up to 800 pounds. Alligators like to swim in swamps and they live on land. They are fast swimmers. Alligators have a long snout with a strong bite. They are meat eaters. Alligators like to eat fish, birds, turtles and deer. They have a long tail, short legs and walk close to the ground. Alligator babies are called hatchlings. A group of baby alligator hatchlings are called a pod.
 
Komodo Dragon
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The Komodo Dragon is the largest lizard in the world. It has gray, black, brown and yellow scales. Komodo Dragons are meat eaters. They have very sharp teeth. Komodo dragons sink their sharp teeth into their prey to kill them. An animal can escape, but the komodo dragon poisons their prey and then hunts them down. They have a clumsy back and forth walk, and their yellow tongues flick in and out constantly. They eat wild pigs, deer, buffalo and snakes. Komodo Dragons live in grassy areas and forests near beaches. They like to climb trees. Some Komodo Dragons can grow to be 10 feet long (that's about the size of a couch)! They can weigh up to 150 pounds. Komodo dragons are enemies of each other. Larger komodo dragons kill smaller komodo dragons.
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References
Amphibians: http://www.dnr.wi.gov/org/caer/ce/eek/critter/amphibian/index.htm
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/amphibians/american-bullfrog.html

Insects: http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/a-insects.html

Mammals: http://www.sandiegozoo.org/animalbytes/a-mammal.html; http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/interactives-extras/animal-guides/animal-guide-red-fox/2212/
Birds: http://www.wbu.com/education/hummingbirds.html; http://www.penguinfacts.net/penguin-facts-for-kids.htm; http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birds/blue-jay/; http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/birding/mallard?source=A-to-Z
Reptiles: http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/animals/alligator.html; http://kids.sandiegozoo.org/animals/reptiles/komodo-dragon#animals; http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/reptiles/eastern-diamondback-rattlesnake/?source=A-to-Z; http://www.kidskonnect.com/subject-index/13-animals/54-turtles.html
 
Created March 2012 by: Megan Horsley, ITS @ DCES